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生物质压块技术和优势 The Art and Advantages of Briquetting

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2017-03-30  来源:全球先进生物能源资讯  浏览次数:41
 

近年来,随着对可再生能源的关注越来越多,以及不同的技术和新的应用出现,压块的应用也随之发展。

In recent years, as the focus on renewable energy has grown, the applications for briquettes have grown concurrently, as have different technologies and new applications.

 

生物质被认为是化石燃料的高效和环保替代品。致密化生物质是生物质交易和处理中的一个重要因素,因为致密燃料具有物流优势,能够确保能量含量高和质量均匀。在致密化的方式中,颗粒是众所周知的,但是压块也有许多替代优势。

Biomass is recognized as an efficient and an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels. Densification of biomass is an important element in trading and handling biomass, as densified fuel offers logistical advantages, and becomes a commodity ensuring high energy content and homogenous quality. Within densification, pellets are best known, but briquetting offers many alternative advantages. 

以前,发展中国家利用压块技术对当地剩余物压块,用于家庭烹饪炉灶和餐馆。后来,随着机器的能力不断提高,压块被用于工业锅炉为工业和发电厂生产热量、蒸汽和电力。在过去20年中,压块也已经进入工业化国家的民用市场,用于木材燃烧炉灶和壁炉。

Traditionally, briquetting technology was established for developing countries to produce briquettes of local residues, for use in household cooking stoves and restaurants. Later, as the capacities of the machines increased, briquettes were used in industrial boilers to create heat, steam and power for industry and power plants. Within the past 20 years, briquetting has also found its way to households in industrialized countries as consumer logs for wood-burning stoves and fireplaces.

 

压块技术

Briquetting Technologies


压块技术包括机械压块机、液压压块机和螺杆压块机;客户必须为其应用选择最佳技术。

Briquetting technologies include mechanical briquetting presses, hydraulic briquetting presses and screw presses; it is important that customers select the best technology for their applications. 

 

机械压块机
Mechanical Presses 

机械压块机的设计就像偏心压机一样,设计非常简单。不断旋转的偏心件,连接到活塞,通过锥形模具系统挤压原料,形成了团块。大飞轮确保非常安静和平衡的操作。压块机每分钟运行270次。压块在冷却管中冷却和硬化,这同样用作运输压块。压块机全自动工作,运行平稳,维护保养少。坚固的设计确保了长寿命,压块机每年可运行高达7000到8000小时。

The mechanical briquetting press is built like an eccentric press, and has a very simple design. A constantly rotating eccentric, connected to a piston, presses the raw material through a conical die system, where the briquettes are being formed. Large flywheels secure a very quiet and balanced operation. The press operates with 270 strokes per minute. The briquettes are cooled and hardened in a cooling line, which also serves as transportation of the briquettes. The presses work fully automatic, resulting in a smooth operation with very little maintenance and service. The robust design ensures a long life span and the presses can operate up to 7,000 to 8,000 hours per year.

C.F. Nielsen公司拥有超过70年的压块机经验,多年来一直开发出新的设备和增加产能,目前的范围是每台机器每小时200公斤(kg / h)到5000 kg / h。 压块的尺寸可以从直径为50-120毫米,方形的尺寸为55毫米×55毫米至100毫米×100毫米。也可以生产其他形状。

C.F. Nielsen has more than 70 years’ experience with briquetting machines and, over the years, has developed new equipment and increased capacities, so that the range is now from 200 kilograms per hour (kg/h) up to 5.000 kg/h per machine. The briquettes can be produced in sizes from a diameter of 50 millimeters (mm) to 120 mm, and in square form from 55 mm by 55 mm to 100 mm by 100 mm. Other shapes can also be produced.

 

机械压块机的主要优点是压机可用于原木和用于锅炉的工业压块。工业压块可以是短的、随机长度或切割成一定长度。另外的优点是产能大,生产成本低,密度高。
The main advantage of a mechanical briquetting press is that the press can be used both for consumer logs and industrial briquettes for boilers. Industrial briquettes can either be made as short pucks, at random lengths or cut to a defined length. Further advantages are high capacity, low production costs, and multiple densities.

 

液压机

Hydraulic Presses 

在液压机中,原料通过定量螺杆压入预压室。 在室内,准确量的材料被预压。主活塞将原料转移到模具中,按照所需密度形成压块。

In a hydraulic press, the raw material is pressed into a precompression chamber by a dosing screw. In the chamber, the exact amount of material is precompressed. The main piston transfers the raw material into the die that forms the briquette into its final state and required density. 

 

液压机的压缩过程相对较慢。压缩循环可以在每分钟6-25个循环,这取决于加料量或压块的密度。传统的液压压块机是小型的,产能50-200kg /h。压块可以是圆形的,直径为50-75mm。然而现在,液压压块可以制成矩形,产能1.5吨/小时的。传统尺寸为150×60mm,但可制成更大的团块。
The compression process of a hydraulic press is relatively slow. The compression cycle can be between six and 25 cycles per minute, depending on the amount loaded or the density of the briquettes. Hydraulic briquetting presses were traditionally small, with capacities from 50 kg/h up to 200 kg/h. Briquettes were round, with a diameter of 50 mm to 75 mm. However, today, hydraulic briquettes can be made in primarily rectangular forms with a capacity up to 1.5 tons per hour. The traditional size is 150 by 60mm, but bigger briquettes can be made.

 

C.F. Nielsen公司的BPH-Quattro压块机,一个液压机的容量可达600 kg / h。 压块机是一个独立的机组,配有小型定量仓,PLC控制面板和压块机。由于主电机和气缸较大,压力机可以生产高密度的压块。
C.F. Nielsen’s BPH-Quattro briquetting press, a hydraulic press has a capacity of up to 600 kg/h. The briquetting press is a self-contained unit, with a small dosing bin, PLC control panel and the briquetting press. The press can produce briquettes with a high density due to a large main motor and cylinder.

 

矩形压块是一种大小均匀的块状,易于储存。压块的密度稍低于1,燃烧时间较短。压块机可以利用较大的混合材料生产出良好的压块,而且非常紧凑。压块通常用于壁炉和燃木炉。
The rectangular briquette is a uniform-sized briquette that is easy to store. The briquettes have a lower density slightly below 1, which gives a shorter burn. The press can produce good briquettes from mixed materials of larger particles, and is very compact. The briquettes are typically used as consumer briquettes for fireplaces and wood-burning stoves.

 

螺旋压块机
Screw Presses

在挤压机中,原料通过进料螺杆进料到室中。原料通过压缩螺杆压缩成锥形模和延伸模。压缩螺杆的形状为圆锥形。螺杆以每分钟800转的速度运行,并且在这过程中高温达到300摄氏度----是模具系统的摩擦和加热的联合产生的。

In an extruder briquetting press, the raw material is fed into a chamber by a feeding screw. The raw material is compressed by a compression screw into the conical die and extension die. The compression screws are conical in shape. The screw operates with approximately 800 revolutions per minute, and during the process high heat—up to 300 degrees Celsius—is being generated in a combination of friction and heating of the die system.


BP Shimada 螺旋压块机的产能高达500kg/h。压块机是一个独立的机组,带有小型仓、PLC控制面板,烟罩和锯。螺旋压块机是用于生产高密度、高品质的压块。这种机器是更精致的压机,需要非常均匀的原料,非常细小的颗粒(2-6mm),水分含量在6-8%之间。如果满足这些要求,机器将生产出更高水准的压块,比所有其他替代品燃烧更持久。通常用于壁炉和燃木炉。
The BP Shimada Screw Press has capacities up to 500 kg/h.The press is a self-contained unit with a small bin, PLC control panel, smoke hood and saw. The screw press is a machine for high-quality briquettes with a very high density. The machine is a more delicate press, requiring very homogenous raw material with very fine particles (between 2 and 6 mm) and the moisture content between 6 and 8 percent. If these requirements are met, the machine will produce state-of-the-art briquettes that will burn longer than all other alternatives. The briquettes are typically used as consumer briquettes or logs for fireplaces and wood-burning stoves.

 

最近的趋势及项目 
Recent Trends, Projects

如今,压块受到了新的关注。压块机更简单,更容易操作,为非洲、亚洲和拉丁美洲等新兴市场开辟了新的可能性。

Today, briquetting is obtaining renewed attention. A briquetting machine is more simple and easier to operate, which opens new possibilities in new markets such as Africa, Asia and Latin America.

 

此外,压块机可以处理更大范围的原料,如较大的颗粒、较高的灰分含量的废弃物和特殊的原料。以下是一些应用实例。
Furthermore, briquetting presses can handle a larger range of raw material such larger particles, waste with higher ash content and special raw materials. Some examples of these applications include the following.

 

世界上最大的原木工厂,最大的托盘生产商之一,每年要生产超过10万吨的压块,每包的精确重量为10公斤。一系列12台BP6500压块机,带有自动锯片以及检测称重系统。

• The world’s largest plant for consumer logs. One of the largest producers of pallets wanted to produce more than 100,000 tons of briquettes per year, with exact weight of each package at 10 kg.A line of 12 BP6500 briquetting presses, automatic saws with check weighing systems was delivered. 

 

压块优势

Advantages of Briquetting

减少森林砍伐。在肯尼亚,65%的能源来自森林砍伐的木材。同时在田间焚烧农业废弃物。菠萝田的废弃物现在被4台BP6510压块机利用,总产量为6吨/小时,提高了可持续性。

• Reducing deforestation. In Kenya, 65 percent of energy comes from wood from forests causing deforestation. At the same time, agricultural residues are burned in the field. Waste from pineapple fields are now being briquetted on four BP6510 briquetting presses with a total capacity of 6 tons per hour, improving sustainability.

 

从废料中创造价值。在新西兰,一家公司正在寻找一种解决方案,来解决纤维板生产中的副产品。在制造过程中产生的废料需要仔细和昂贵的处理。废料被转化成压块,卖给温室,将废料转化为可观的利润。

• Creating value from waste. In New Zealand, a company was looking to find a solution for the dust byproducts from their MDF production. The dust produced during the manufacturing process needed careful and costly disposal. The dust was converted to briquettes and sold to a greenhouse, turning the waste into a considerable profit maker.


尽可能利用废弃木料。一家德国货运公司,收集不同类型废物。包括旧托盘在内的最好的原材料正在用于原木生产。公司拥有三台BP65100压块机,总产能为3.5〜4吨/小时。
• Getting the best of demolition wood. A German company had a trucking business collecting different types of waste. The best raw material, including old pallets, is now being used for consumer logs. The company has three BP65100 briquetting presses with a total capacity of 3.5 to 4 tons per hour.

 

低成本生产碳化木材。碳化木材是原料中具有高摩擦力和非常小的粘合力的难处理原料。压块具有相当低的功耗。已经出售了几台压块机用于实验室测试和生产线。
• Low cost for production of torrefied wood. Torrefied wood is a difficult raw material with high friction and very little binding in the raw material. Briquetting has a considerable lower power consumption and a general lower consumption. Several presses have been sold for laboratory testing and production lines.

增加厌氧消化池中的沼气生产。通常,由于秸秆不能吸收水分,所以小麦秸秆不能用于沼气工厂。当秸秆被压块时,该过程产生小的蒸汽爆炸,伴随着高热和机械处理,改变了秸秆的结构。向浆中加入10%的压块可将沼气生产提高150%。

• Increasing gas production in anerobic digesters. Normally, wheat straw cannot be utilized in biogas plants, as straw cannot absorb water. When straw is being briquetted, the process creates small steam explosions, which together with high heat and mechanical treatment, changes the structure of the straw. Adding 10 percent briquettes to animal slurry can increase biogas production by 150 percent.

 

将垃圾衍生燃料(RDF)和固体回收燃料(SRF)转化为收益。在许多国家,RDF / SRF需要昂贵的处理费用。当其转化为压块时,它成为一种燃料,用于能源买卖。
• Turning refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and solid recovered fuel (SRF) into a profit maker. In many countries, RDF/SRF is a waste that costs high tipping fees to dispose of. When the raw material is converted into briquettes, it becomes a fuel that can be sold for energy.

 

用于炉灶的压块。在非洲,木炭被用于炉灶。建立了“村庄概念”,使小村庄能够将农业废弃物和其他类型的废物转化为小压块用于民用炉灶。
• Briquettes for cooking stoves. In Africa, charcoal is being used for cooking stoves. A “village concept” has been created, enabling small villages to convert agricultural waste and other types of waste to small briquettes for cooking.


来源:Biomass Magazine

Author:Esben Mikkel Vestergaard  
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