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微型颗粒燃料热电联产:未来智能电网分布式发电解决方案 Micro-Scale Pellet-Fueled Combined Heat and Power: A new distributed powe

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2017-04-05  来源:全球先进生物能源资讯  浏览次数:92
 

木屑颗粒有两个主要市场:工业木屑颗粒市场和优质供暖木屑颗粒市场。工业木屑颗粒是指发电站煤炭的替代品,而供暖木屑颗粒是用于颗粒炉子、颗粒锅炉和颗粒燃烧机的燃料。

There are two major markets for wood pellets: the industrial wood pellet markets in which the pellets substitute for coal in large utility power generation stations, and the premium heating pellet markets in which wood pellets are used to fuel pellet stoves, pellet boilers, and pellet furnaces .

本白皮书是关于未来的供暖颗粒市场。目前,优质供暖颗粒仅用于炉子、锅炉或燃烧机产生热量。但是OkoFEN公司在上奥地利开发的一种新产品,将大大改变供暖颗粒,有助于木屑颗粒整体市场。在美国,这些系统将在缅因州组装,并以缅因州能源系统“MESys”品牌销售。

This white paper is about the future of the pellet heating markets. Currently, premium heating pellets only produce heat in stoves, boilers, or furnaces. But a new product, developed by OkoFENin Upper Austria is poised to dramatically change how heating pellets contribute to the overall market for wood pellets. In the United States the systems will be assembled in Maine and sold under the Maine Energy Systems“MESys” brand.

 

新产品是一种小型热电联产(CHP)系统,使用优质木屑颗粒。下面更详细描述这种新产品,如何跨越供暖颗粒和工业颗粒之间的界限。如下所述,利用可再生低碳的木屑颗粒在微观层面发电可以成为分布式智能电网架构的一部分,补充小规模太阳能、小型蓄电池以及电动车辆使用的增长 。

The new product is a small combined heat and power (CHP) system that runs on premium wood pellets. This new product, described in more detail below, crosses the boundary between heating pellets and industrial pellets. As we describe below, generating electricity at the micro level with renewable low carbon wood pellets can be part of a distributed power smart grid architecture that can complement small-scale solar, small-scale battery storage, and the growth in the use of electric vehicles.

 

工业及优质木屑颗粒市场

Industrial and Premium Pellet Markets

 

全球木屑颗粒市场每年约2800万吨。如下图所示,2016年全球需求平均分配在供暖市场和工业市场之间。最终用户是大型粉煤发电站的工业市场,将在2017年超过供暖市场。从2017年起,根据目前的预测,工业颗粒行业将主导全球木屑颗粒需求。

The total global market for wood pellets is about 28 million metric tonnes per year. As the chart below shows, in 2016 global demand was about evenly split between the heating markets and the industrial markets. The industrial markets, whose end users are large pulverized coal power stations, will overtake the heating markets in 2017. From 2017 on, under current forecasts, the industrial pellet sector will dominate global demand for wood pellets.

2025年,优质供暖颗粒需求预计约为2450万吨。但是,如果以下愿景成为现实,需求可能会更高。

Premium pellet demand is forecast to be about 24.5 million metric tonnes in 2025. However, demand could be much higher if the vision set forth below becomes reality.

 

新型热电联产系统

The New Combined Heat and Power System

 

新的微型CHP系统是建立在可靠高效的OkoFEN颗粒锅炉的基础之上。在17个国家安装了超过6万台OkoFEN颗粒锅炉。在美国,MESys在缅因州生产的成千上万个系统,服务于供暖家庭、企业、市政建筑、学校和其他建筑物。这些全自动颗粒锅炉已经证明了它们的可靠性和效率。

The new micro-CHP system is built upon the foundation of the reliable and highly efficient OkoFEN pellet boilers. There are more than 60,000 OkoFEN pellet boilers installed in 17 countries. In the US, thousands of systems produced in Maine by MESys are heating homes, businesses, municipal buildings, schools, and other buildings. These fully automatic pellet boilers have proven their reliability and efficiency.

现在,除了热量,微型颗粒燃料CHP锅炉也发电。经过几年的研发和现场测试,微型热电联产系统正在欧洲部署,并在美国全面批准销售。

Now, in addition to heat, the pellet-fueled micro-CHP boiler also generates electricity. After several years of R&D and field testing, the micro-CHP systems are being deployed in Europe and are several months from full approval for sale in the US.

 

CHP锅炉产生高达60千瓦的热量(约205,000BTU /时)和高达5千瓦的电力。 所以,当建筑物用颗粒供暖时,热电联产机组也在发电。

The CHP boiler produces up to 60 kilowatts of heat (about 205,000 BTU/hour) and up to 5 kilowatts of electricity. So, while the building is being heated by pellets, the CHP unit is also generating electricity.

 

下图显示了缅因州能源系统产品微型热电联产机组在装配间,正在进行美国出售审批。

The photo below shows the micro-CHP unit in the Maine Energy Systems product assembly building where it is being tested for US approval for sale.

Part of the external covering is removed for access to the internal components during testing. In the foreground is the internal pellet storage tank that is refilled automatically by a pneumatic conveyance system connected by the white hoses to a bulk pellet fuel storage bin. The domed top of the custom designed Sterling engine and generating unit can be seen behind and above the pellet storage tank. The entire system sits on a space that is about 40 inches by 36 inches (100cm x 90cm). In the bottom-left of the photo is the small removable bin that automatically collects and compacts the ash. That bin needs emptying 4-8 times per year for the typical installation and the system alerts the owner via email and text when the bin is nearly full. The image below shows the Stirling engine and generator.

 

由于测试需要,拆除了一个部件。前台是一个内部颗粒储存罐,通过气动输送系统自动填充,通过白色软管连接到散装颗粒燃料储存箱。颗粒储存罐后面是定制设计的Stirling发动机和发电机组。整个系统大约占40英寸乘36英寸(100厘米x 90厘米)的空间。照片的左下方是自动收集和压缩灰分的小型可移动垃圾箱。该箱每年需要排空4-8次,当箱子快满的时候,系统会通过电子邮件和文本通知所有者。下图是斯特林发动机和发电机(Stirling engine and generator)。

整个微型CHP装置的平均效率为85%。 这意味着在最佳配置下完全输出,CHP系统可以产生约205,000BTU /小时(60千瓦热)和5千瓦电力。该系统有效地从20kW(约68,000BTU /小时)的热量输出到60kw的全输出。系统根据热量需求调节其输出。电力输出与热量输出成正比。

The entire micro-CHP unit has an average efficiency of 85%. That means that at full output in an optimal configuration the CHP system can produce about 205,000 BTU/hour (60 kilowatts heat) and 5 kilowatts of electricity. The system operates efficiently from about 20 kW (about 68,000 BTU/hour) of heat output to full output at 60 kw. The system modulates its output to follow the heating demand. Electricity output is proportional to heat output.

 

60 kW的热量输出超过了大多数中小型家庭需求。在未来几个月,将会提供更适合中小型家庭的。但是,对于大户家庭、许多企业、公寓楼、小学校、诊所、图书馆和市政大楼等,这个机组将能够满足热力需求,同时产生5千瓦的电力。在具有足够热量需求的一些应用中,可以将两个或更多个机组放置在独立的能量舱中。

60 kW’s of heat output is more than is needed by most small and medium sized homes. In the coming months, a smaller version better suited for small to medium sized homes will be offered. But for large homes, many businesses, apartment buildings, small schools, clinics, libraries, municipal buildings, etc., this unit will match well with the heat demands while generating up to 5 kilowatts of power. In some applications with sufficient heat demand, two or more of the units can be placed in to a self-contained energy cabin.

 

小型颗粒燃料热电联产前景 

Putting the Value of Small-Scale Pellet-fueled CHP in Perspective

 

为了说明产生热能和电力的好处,FutureMetrics已经生成了一个仪表板,显示了使用颗粒燃料热电联产产生的电量对电动汽车(EV)充电的成本。

To illustrate the benefits of producing both heat and power and to use an example that has metrics that are easy to understand, FutureMetrics has produced a dashboard that shows the cost to charge an electric vehicle (EV) using the electricity produced by the pellet-fueled micro-CHP system.

仪表板计算通过CHP系统生产的电力,为当前可用的12台电动汽车中的任何一辆充电的成本。用户可以更改许多输入。输入和输出可以在美版(使用英制单位和美元)和欧洲版本(使用公制单位和欧元)之间切换。仪表板将EV与汽油或柴油车的每英里或公里的“燃料”成本进行比较。用户还可以将EV充电的每千瓦时的成本与微型热电联产对比,并与电力公司的电力进行比较。为了看到当加热需求小于最大输出时,较小的机组或当前机组的情况,用户可以将“热输出”控制滑动到较低值。

The dashboard calculates the cost to charge any one of 12 currently available electric cars from the power produced by the CHP system. The user can change many of the inputs. The inputs and outputs can be switched between a US version (using imperial units and dollars) and a European version (using metric units and Euros). The dashboard compares the “fuel” cost per mile or kilometer of the EV versus a gasoline or diesel car. The user can also compare the cost per kWh of charging the EV with the microCHP and with electricity from the utility. To see what a smaller unit would produce or what the current unit will produce when the heating demand is less than the maximum output, the user can slide the “heat output” control to lower values.

 

仪表板的屏幕截图在下一页。 使用仪表板的默认输入,并将汽油车与BMW i3 EV进行对比,在美国,驾驶相同距离,燃油车比微型CHP充电的EV燃料成本高5.45倍。在欧洲,由于燃料成本较高,每公里使用柴油比使用颗粒CHP系统的电力要贵13倍。

A screenshot of the dashboard is on the next page. With the default inputs for the dashboard and comparing a gasoline fueled car with the BMW i3 EV, it is 5.45 times costlier in the US to drive the same distance in a combustion engine car running on gas than it is with the EV charged by the micro-CHP. Or to put in another way, gas would have to cost about $0.40/gallon for the two costs per mile to be equivalent. In Europe, given the higher cost of fuel, it is 13 times costlier to use diesel fuel per kilometer traveled than to use the electricity from the pellet CHP system.

 

小规模颗粒燃料CHP有可能成为未来分布式智能电网的主要部分。

Small-scale pellet-fueled CHP has the potential to become a major part of the distributed generation smart grid of the future.

 

此外,通过提供由可再生颗粒燃料生产的低碳热能和电力,来弥补优质供暖颗粒行业和电力行业之间的差距,从而扩大优质颗粒市场。

Furthermore, bridging the gap between the premium heating pellet sector and the power sector by providing low carbon heat and power produced from renewable pellet fuel provides a pathway to an invigorated and larger premium pellet market. 


来源:FutureMetrics

Author:William Strauss 

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