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中国正在认真对待生物质发电 China is getting serious about biomass power

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2017-08-14  来源:全球先进生物能源资讯  浏览次数:173
 
01

中国对加拿大木屑颗粒生产商来说有点神秘。加拿大木屑颗粒行业传统上依赖于欧洲电力市场,最近已经渗透到日本和韩国。有时候会有潜在的中国买家询问,但不多。我们认为,中国由于人口众多,对煤炭的依赖和能源需求的不断增长,最终将看到使用木屑颗粒可以减少温室气体排放和减少污染的好处。

China is a bit of a mystery to Canadian wood pellet producers. The Canadian wood pellet industry has traditionally relied on the European power market and more recently has penetrated Japan and South Korea. From time to time we have had casual inquiries from potential Chinese buyers, but nothing serious materialized. We believed that with its large population, its reliance on coal, and its insatiable energy demand, China would eventually see the benefits of using wood pellets to lower GHG emissions and reduce pollution.

 

6月7-8日,我前往北京参加为期两天的生物质共烧研讨会,并推广加拿大的木屑颗粒。
On June 7 to 8 I travelled to Beijing to attend a two-day biomass co-firing workshop and to promote Canadian wood pellets.

 

研讨会由国际能源署清洁煤炭中心与中国电力规划工程研究院(EPPEI)联合组织。约有320名与会者,代表政府、公用事业(都是国有的)、大学、技术提供者、顾问和生物质能利益相关者。
The workshop was organised by the IEA Clean Coal Center in conjunction with the China Electric Power Planning & Engineering Institute (EPPEI). There were about 320 attendees, representing government, utilities (the Chinese being all state owned), universities, various think tanks, technology providers, consultants and biomass interests.

令人高兴的是,中国政府认真对待污染问题。在“十三五”规划(2016年至2020年)期间,中国计划实现以下目标,其中包括20%的“非化石能源”,总体目标是每千瓦时发电量低于550g二氧化碳排放量。 质疑者会看到,他们的分类是非化石,将包括水电和核能在内的一切,所以20%的目标可能没有那么有意义。然而,同样的五年规划到2050年将达到50%的非化石能源,而这可能是未来很长一段时间,这是一个非常有意义的数字,需要认真地利用生物质。

It was gratifying to see that the Chinese government has taken its pollution issue so seriously. In its 13th 5 Year Plan (2016 to 2020), China intends to achieve an electrical mix that includes 20 per cent “Non-Fossil Fuel” with an overall target of emitting less than 550g CO2 per kWh of electricity produced. The cynical will see that their categorisation as non-fossil, would catch everything including hydro and nuclear, so the 20 per cent target is perhaps not as meaningful as it could be. However, the same 5 Year Plan targets 50 per cent non-fossil fuel by 2050, and whilst this might be a long time in the future, this is a very meaningful number that will require biomass in the mix in a serious way.


目前中国的电力容量为1650GW,其中生物质目前占比达到了0.7%(12GW),所以有很大的发展空间。以25%的共烧率(高位数),这可能会变成275GW。煤炭用于供给约1,100GW的国家电网。“五年规划”还考虑运行大约100个生物质共烧示范工厂。其中一些已经开始运行了。
The electrical capacity in China is currently 1650GW, of which biomass currently makes up 0.7 per cent (12GW), so lots of room to grow. At a 25 per cent co-firing rate (a high-side number), this could become 275GW for example. Coal is used to fuel about 1,100GW of the national grid. The 5 Year Plan also contemplates running about 100 demonstration plants to kick off the co-firing of biomass. Some of these have already started.


通过讨论和演讲,很明显,木屑颗粒是最佳技术和物流的生物质选项。但是,这个问题在政治上是敏感的。如今中国的问题是,他们认为,大部分的颗粒物污染来自农民燃烧其秸秆/秸秆。因此,中国政府正在试图通过共烧这些农业残留物一石二鸟,以提高中国的非化石百分比,同时解决农民的污染问题。这一战略的另外一个作用是为农民提供另一个收入来源(通过生物质),政府希望将农村人口迁移到城市。所以目前中国的重点在于农业生物质能。他们认为有大约十亿吨的可用资源,理论上可以提高其整个电力需求。所以另一个政治目标是让国家减少对进口的能源依赖,这个百分比已经很低了。
As the discussions and presentations took place, it was clear that wood pellets were the best technical and logistical biomass option. However, the subject is politically sensitive. The issue in China today is that they claim that a significant portion of their particulate pollution comes from farmers burning their stover/stalks after harvesting. Therefore, the Chinese government is trying to kill two birds with one stone by co-firing these agricultural residues to both lift the Chinese non-fossil percentage, whilst simultaneously addressing the farmers’ pollution problem. A beneficial side effect of this strategy is that by providing farmers with another revenue stream (for their biomass), the government hopes to arrest the human migration from rural into urban areas. So the emphasis in China is currently on agricultural biomass. They believe that there are some one billion tons of the stuff available, which theoretically could fuel their entire electricity requirement. So another political objective is for the country to reduce its energy dependence on imports, which is already low in percentage terms.


在技术方面,一致意认为,这些农用剩余物的直接共燃会导致锅炉管的结渣结垢以及锅炉降级。这种灰沉积的根本原因已被确定为与粉煤灰中的氯结合的高碱元素(主要是钾)。显然这可以通过在锅炉中引入硫来缓解。为了避免这个问题,他们正在努力气化生物质,然后间接共烧气体。
On the technical front, there was consensus that direct co-firing of these agri residues would create slagging and fouling of the boiler tubes and associated de-rating of the boilers. The root cause of this ash deposition has been identified as high alkali elements (mainly potassium) combining with chlorine in the fly ash. Apparently this can be mitigated by the introduction of sulphur in the boiler. To avoid this issue altogether however, they are looking hard at first gasifying the biomass, then co-firing the gas indirectly.

 

另外还有物流问题。 一项大学研究表明,如果每个发电厂周围都有一个50公里的收集半径,那么它可以确保足够的农业生物质能够以所需的水平共烧,尽管有季节性。然而,这将需要大量生物质的物理运动。单靠切割和牵引要求是艰巨的,不要忘记任何一方所需的存储。
In addition, there is the issue of logistics. A university study suggested that if every power plant were given a 50-kilometre collection radius around itself, it could secure enough agricultural biomass to co-fire at the required level, albeit seasonally. However, this would require the physical movement of huge amounts of biomass. The cutting and hauling requirement alone is daunting, never mind the storage required at either end.

目前禁止进口木屑颗粒(保持对国内农业剩余物的重视),但似乎如果中国政府希望重视生物质的话,木屑颗粒不能无限期地被禁止。可能需要一段时间,但希望在这方面看到政策的变化。
Wood pellet imports are currently banned (to keep the focus on domestic agricultural residues), but it seems that if the Chinese government wishes to get really serious about biomass, wood pellets cannot remain in banned indefinitely. It might take a while, but expect to see changes in policy in this respect.

 

02

 

NICE之行
NICE Tour

 

国际团队被邀请访问了位于中国最大的矿业和能源公司神华集团的国家清洁低碳能源研究所(简称NICE)。神华是国有的。它开始是一家煤矿公司,但现在已经多元化进入电力和交通运输。今天,它运行着全国最大的燃煤火力发电站,拥有2000英里的铁路和几个港口。该公司在风电和太阳能方面投入巨资。该公司雇用了20万人,其第一季利润据说在3-40亿美元之间。神华正在讨论与其他两个大型国有电力公司合并,这可能使其成为全球最大的电力公司。

The international contingent was invited to visit a research institute called NICE, an anagram for National Institute for Clean and low carbon Energy, situated on the campus of Shenhua Group, China’s largest mining and energy company. Shenhua is state owned. It started as a coal mining company, but has diversified into power and transportation. Today it runs the country’s largest fleet of coal fired thermal power stations, owns 2,000 miles of railroad and a couple of ports. The company has made huge investments in wind and solar, which currently amount to 7GW of its 80GW capacity. The company employs 200,000 people and its first quarter profits were said to be between USD$3 and 4 billion. Shenhua is in discussions to merge with two other large state-owned utilities, which will probably make it the largest power company in the world. (More info here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shenhua_Group .)


神华并不侧重于生物质共烧。其许多火力发电站在北方(靠近煤矿),合理去除任何物质生物质来源。神华正在增加风能和太阳能等可再生能源,并在氢气方面做了很多工作。该公司将在未来五年内在全国范围内推出300个氢气加气站。 然而,在合并后的某个阶段(由于规模不大),神华有可能成为政府开展共烧的施压对象。它与农业剩余物的接近程度普遍较差,这可以使其成为进口木屑颗粒的理想选择。此外,一旦解除禁令,神华的港口所有权有助于进口木屑颗粒物流。
Shenhua is not focussed on biomass co-firing. Many of its thermal power stations are in the north (near its coal mines) and reasonably removed from any material biomass sources. Shenhua is growing its renewable portfolio in wind and solar and is doing a lot in hydrogen. The company will supposedly be rolling out 300 hydrogen filling stations across the country in the next five years. However, at some stage post-merger (due to size alone), Shenhua is likely to become a target of government pressure to co-fire. Its generally poor proximity to agricultural residues could make it an ideal candidate for imported wood pellets. Furthermore, Shenhua’s port ownership should help the logistics of importing wood pellets once that ban is lifted.

 

这次访问令人印象深刻。尽管这个说法很容易,但我们明智的做法是不要忽略中国的努力,我们应该继续关注中国市场。
This visit was an impressive window on what is possible in China today. Despite the easy rhetoric, we would be wise to not discount the Chinese efforts and we should continue to pay close attention to what is going on there.

来源:Canadian Biomass Magazine

Written by Vaughan Bassett

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