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IEA Bioenergy:北美木屑颗粒行业市场 Wood pellet industry in North America

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2017-08-04  来源:全球先进生物能源资讯  浏览次数:39





Regulatory framework, market drivers and barriers


加拿大木屑颗粒生产和消费量的增加主要是受国际需求和国内潜在新政策的推动。加拿大联邦政府已经计划在2030年之前逐步停止使用燃煤,作为其整体清洁能源战略的一部分。目标是将加拿大可持续发电的份额从今天的80%(大部分来自水电)的比例提高到90%。煤电约占加拿大温室气体排放总量的10%。 煤厂集中在阿尔伯塔省(10个工厂),萨斯喀彻温省(1-2个工厂),新不伦瑞克省(1个工厂)和新斯科舍省。

The increase of wood pellet production and consumption within Canada is mainly driven by international demand as well as potentially new domestic policies. The federal government has announced plans to phase out the use of coal-fired electricity in Canada by 2030 as part of its overall clean-energy strategy. The goal is to increase Canada’s share of sustainably produced electricity to 90 % from today’s share of 80 % (the majority being derived from hydropower). Coal power accounts for roughly 10 % of Canada’s total greenhouse gas emissions. Coal plants are concentrated in the provinces of Alberta (10 plants), Saskatchewan (1-2 plants), New Brunswick (1 plant) and Nova Scotia (exempt from coal out-phase).


在新的气候变化计划下,新不伦瑞克省政府计划逐步淘汰煤炭。该计划目标是在2030年逐步淘汰煤炭,但表示可能推迟,因为长达10年新的联邦减排条例(Church,2016年)。阿尔伯塔还宣布计划到2030年淘汰煤炭 该省有一些不能被转换为共烧或全烧的机组,但到2030年可以转换5个较新的机组。目前,艾伯塔省政府没有打算将颗粒视为新煤电机组的过渡选择。

The New Brunswick government has plans to phase out coal as an electricity source under a new climate change plan that also puts a price on carbon. The plan sets 2030 as the target for phasing out coal, but says that it could be delayed by as much as 10 years with interim emission reductions aligned with new federal regulations (Church, 2016).Alberta also announced plans to phase out coal by 2030. The province hosts a number of older units which cannot be converted to co- or mono-firing, but five newer units could be converted by 2030. At present there appears to be a lack of awareness within the Alberta government to consider pellets as a transition option for newer coal power units.



Within the residential heating market, woodstove change-out or replacement programs in the provinces of Nova Scotia, Quebec, New Brunswick, British Columbia, and Ontario could facilitate a domestic market growth for wood pellets (HPBAC, 2016).



Production capacity, production and feedstock


2010年,加拿大的生产能力约为2Mt/年。其颗粒厂年产能达65%,产量1.3 Mt,出口1.2 Mt。2011年,产量增加到1.5 Mt,出口1.3 Mt。

In 2010, Canada had around 2 Mt/a production capacity. Its pellet plants operated at 65 % capacity that year, producing 1.3 Mt and exporting 1.2 Mt. In 2011, production increased to 1.5 Mt with 1.3 Mt of pellets being exported.


到2012年,铭牌的生产能力已经上升到3Mt左右。仅在2015年和2016年,又增加了1 Mt新的年产能。截至2016年底,加拿大合计有42个颗粒厂,总铭牌产能刚刚超过4Mt。目前还没有新工厂正在建设中,尽管加拿大的生产商正在研究潜在的新项目。

By 2012, nameplate production capacity had risen to around 3 Mt. In 2015 and 2016 alone, an additional 1 Mt of new annual capacity was added. By the end of 2016, Canada counted 42 plants with a total nameplate capacity of just over 4 Mt. At present there are no new plants under construction, although Canadian producers are currently researching potential new projects.


不列颠哥伦比亚省(BC)占加拿大铭牌产能总量的60%,其次是安大略省(ON)和魁北克省(QC)。BC省的颗粒厂往往很大,产量超过150,000 t/年。

British Columbia (BC) accounts for 60 % of the total Canadian nameplate capacity, followed by Ontario (ON) and Quebec (QC) provinces. Pellet plants in BC tend to be large with production rates of over 150,000 t/a.



The plants supply domestic (in the case of ON) and oversea large-scale heat and power plants (in the case of BC). Pellet plants in the other provinces predominantly supply regional markets and tend to be smaller. Their nameplate production capacities are in the range of about 50,000 t.


图4.1 - 2008-2015年加拿大木屑颗粒年生产能力发展(生物质杂志,2017年;粮农组织统计数据库,2016年;加拿大统计局,2016年)。

Figure 4.1 - Wood pellet annual production capacity development in Canada from 2008 to 2015 (Biomass magazine, 2017; FAOSTAT, 2016; Statistics Canada, 2016).


图4.2 - 加拿大省份的产能能力分布情况。

Figure 4.2 - Capacity distribution across Canadian provinces.





Export markets

加拿大生产的木屑颗粒主要市场是欧洲(包括英国和比利时等)和亚洲(包括日本和韩国)在内的海外(大型)热电站和美国住宅供暖市场。加拿大统计局报告表1中展示了最近4年的数量。 与目的地国家报告的相应进口量进行交叉检查,显示出偏差,特别是在比利时和日本的情况(表4-2)。

The main markets for Canadian produced wood pellets are in oversea (large-scale) heat and power stations in Europe (including the UK, Belgium, and others) and Asia (including Japan and South Korea) as well as residential heating markets in the U.S. Statistics Canada reports the quantities shown in Table 1 for the last 4 years. Cross-checking these with the respective import volumes reported by the destination countries revealed some deviation, particularly in the case of Belgium and Japan (Table 4-2).


表4-1 - 根据目的地的加拿大木屑颗粒出口情况(Statistics-Canada 2016)。

Table 4-1 - Canadian wood pellet exports by destination (Statistics-Canada 2016).


表4-2 - 目的地国家(欧盟统计局,日本财政部)对加拿大进口货物进行交叉检查。

Table 4-2 - Cross-check of imports from Canada reported by countries of destination (Eurostat; Japan Ministry of Finance).



Domestic consumption



Current domestic pellet consumption is calculated at just over 300,000 t/a (see Section 4.1.5), used in residential heating stoves and the Atikokan power station in Ontario.


Atikokan是北美最大的100%生物质燃料电厂,产生可再生、可调度、峰值容量的电力。该工厂于2012年停止使用煤炭,并进行了1.7亿加拿大元的转换,完全使用木屑颗粒。自2014年以来,Ontario Power Generation 公司运行Atikokan作为高峰负荷电厂,每年的木屑颗粒需求量约为100,000 吨,仅占其潜在产能的30%左右。木屑颗粒来自国内。

Atikokan is North America's largest 100 % biomass-fueled power plant generating renewable, dispatchable, peak capacity power. The plant stopped using coal in 2012 and underwent a CAN$ 170 million conversion to solely run on wood pellets. Since 2014, Ontario Power Generation runs Atikokan as a peak-load plant, with an annual wood pellet demand of about 100,000 t, representing only about 30 % of its potential capacity. The wood pellets are sourced domestically.



A second Ontario plant in Thunder Bay (i.e., one of the plant’s two boilers) has also been retrofitted to use biomass as fuel. It is currently only run experimentally using roughly 8,000 t of torrefied pellets from Norway.



Price trends


Sale prices for export pellets in bulk shipments for oversea markets range between CAN$150 to CAN$180 per tonne FOB. Residential heating markets in the U.S. are supplied in bagged form stacked on pallets and achieve higher sale prices between CAN$210 to CAN$280 per tonne (Statistics Canada 2016).


证据表明,(40磅)袋装颗粒的区域价格为5.24美元,等于262美元/吨,或15.41美元/GJ 。不列颠哥伦比亚省的一个案例研究计算出颗粒供热价格(包括经营和电力)大约为15.92美元/ GJ,丙烷为24.36美元/ GJ(包括交付、碳税和电风扇),电力为29.47美元/ GJ,和供热油为33.93美元/ GJ (Murray,2015)。

Anecdotal evidence suggests regional prices of $5.24 per (40 lbs) pellet bag equaling $262 per tonne or $15.41 per GJ. A case study in British Columbia calculated pellet heat prices (including operation and electricity) at roughly $15.92/GJ, compared to $24.36/GJ for propane (including delivery, carbon tax and electrical fan), $29.47/GJ for electricity, and $33.93/GJ for heating oil (Murray, 2015).


表4 - 3 -加拿大的出口价格(Statistics Canada)

Table 4-3 - Canadian export sale prices (Statistics Canada 2016).




Trade and logistic aspects


Canadian exports have been primarily shipped out of the province of British Columbia via the harbors of Vancouver and Prince Rupert. The inland logistics are done exclusively via rail from the pellet mill to harbor and by truck from the forest to the pellet mills.


据报道,从加拿大东部到欧洲的新贸易路线以及位于内陆和/或东部省份颗粒厂 ,包括安大略省、魁北克省和新不伦瑞克省的颗粒厂也利用驳船运输。

Newer trade routes leaving eastern Canada to Europe as well as pellet mill facilities located inland and/or in the eastern provinces, including Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick have been reported to also utilize barge shipping.


图4.3 - 2008-2015年加拿大出口和进口的变化(加拿大统计局2016年)。

Figure 4.3 - Evolution of export and import in Canada from 2008 to 2015 (Statistics Canada 2016).


由于其地理位置,不列颠哥伦比亚省也成为亚洲市场,如韩国和日本的首批木屑颗粒供应商之一。在过去的几年中,加拿大的出口量已经占所有日本木屑颗粒进口量的三分之二(Strauss 2016)。

Due to its geographic location, British Columbia has also emerged as one of the first suppliers of wood pellets to Asian markets in South Korea and Japan. In some years Canadian exports have made up two thirds or more of all Japanese wood pellet imports (Strauss 2016).


2016年,出口额增长了46%,达到2.37 Mt。增长最大的国家为日本,增长率为240%(192.173吨),增幅最大的是英国,为458.217吨(同比增长38%)。(WPAC,2017)

In 2016, exports increased by exceptional 46%, reaching 2.37 Mt. The largest increase by percentage went to Japan with 240% (192.173 t), the largest increase by volume went to the U.K. with 458.217 t (plus 38%). (WPAC, 2017)


图4.4 - 2015年加拿大的出口和进口(加拿大统计局2016年)。

Figure 4.4 - Pellet exports and imports from Canada in 2015 (Statistics Canada 2016).


图4.5 - 加拿大木屑颗粒生产- 消费和贸易平衡。

Figure 4.5 - Canadian wood pellet production-consumption and trade balance.




Pellet quality standard



Canadian pellet production adheres to international technical standards including the ISO/CEN.


加拿大标准协会创建了遵循ISO技术委员会238的CAN CSA ISO标准。CANPlus借鉴于ENPlus,也被美国环保局接受。

The Canadian Standardization Association created the CAN CSA ISO Standard which follows the ISO Technical Committee 238. CANPlus mirrors ENPlus and is also accepted by the U.S. EPA.



Proposed pellet plants


表4-4 - 加拿大拟建的木屑颗粒厂(2016年12月)。

Table 4-4 - Proposed pellet plants in Canada (Status December 2016).360截图20170804135317674.jpg



Future projections



Export markets are expected to continue dominating the Canadian demand portfolio. The domestic co-firing market could provide new growth potential, but wood pellets would need to compete with other biomass as well as other low-carbon options to replace current coal fired power stations.



Domestic residential heating markets are expected to remain relatively stable unless there will be a significant increase in crude oil and heating prices. New uses could emerge in industrial processes, e.g., the concrete industry. Canadian biofuel production from wood pellets is generally a desired future pathway. However, wood pellets are still perceived to be expensive and their benefits (including homogeneous quality, storability, flowability, etc.) are not yet valued sufficiently across the industry.


欧洲和亚洲对木屑颗粒的需求仍将成为加拿大生产商的重要出路。在整个亚洲地区,韩国预计将继续是一个积极的市场,一些独立电力生产商和工业部门(如钢铁厂)开始利用木屑颗粒。日本的未来增长可能会有最大,取决于多少煤炭厂确定转换。日本市场需求的上涨预期为每年约10-12 Mt。

European and Asian demand for wood pellets will remain a critical outlet for Canadian producers in the future. Across Asia, South Korea is expected to remain an opportunist market where some independent power producers and industry sectors (e.g., steel mills) are starting to utilize wood pellets. Japan could have the largest future growth depending on how many coal plants decide to convert. The upper expectations of the Japanese market demand are around 10-12 Mt annually.


United States




Regulatory framework, market drivers and barriers





The main drivers for wood pellet consumption in the U.S. have been regional price competitiveness with residential heating oil and propane as well as replacements of fuelwood burners with respect to comfort and automatic feed-in. There are some incentives for bioheat targeted at the residential and commercial building sector. Industrial use of wood pellets in heat and power is not incentivized. In fact, industrial consumption of wood pellets for heat and power production is marginal at best. The main use of woody biomass is limited to direct by-product (residue) use in the forest products sector, e.g., pulp and paper. Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) mandates the production of renewable electricity, including biopower, but wood pellets are usually not used in biopower facilities due to price. The Clean Power Plan could increase domestic wood pellet consumption in the electricity sector, but its implementation is uncertain and its market impact unknown and potentially limited.





The U.S. wood pellet production started in the Northwest and Northeast, where small-scale production based on sawmill residues supplied regional residential heating markets. These markets grew but were ultimately limited by the expansion of the natural gas network and a limited price competitiveness of wood pellets. The U.S. production grew exponentially over the past years due to demand from oversea markets. The expansion took place almost exclusively in the Southeast (with some production increases along the East Coast) due to strategic factors including proximity to EU markets, traditional wood basket including availability of biomass resources, labor, infrastructure, and know-how.




New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) by the EPA



In March 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency issued New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for new residential wood heaters, including pellet stoves. Details see Section 4.2.6.



生物质炉灶税收抵免政策Biomass Stove Tax Credit



The Biomass Stove Tax Credit is a federal incentive that gives a $300 tax credit for purchasing a fuelwood or wood pellet stove with a minimum 75 % efficiency rating until December 31, 2016.




美国环保署(EPA)提出的清洁能源计划(CPP)计划削减发电厂的碳污染。 EPA于2015年10月在联邦公报上公布了CPP的最终要求。自此以后,二十多个州和多个行业团体和企业对该计划提出了挑战。2016年2月,最高法院暂停执行CPP计划,等待司法复审。

The Clean Power Plan (CPP), proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to cut carbon pollution from power plants. The EPA published the final rule for the CPP in the Federal Register in October 2015. More than two dozen states and a variety of industry groups and businesses have since filed challenges against the program. In February 2016, the Supreme Court stayed implementation of the CPP Plan pending judicial review.


生物质能够是否能满足CPP要求尚不清楚。2015年11月,美国环保署航空和辐射办公室助理署长Janet McCabe发表了一篇博客,介绍了生物质在CPP中的潜在作用。 此外,该机构于2016年4月召开了生物质能在CPP中的作用研讨会(“生物质杂志”,2017年)。

The exact role biomass can play in meeting CPP requirements is still unclear. In November 2015, U.S. EPA’s acting assistant administrator for the Office of Air and Radiation, Janet McCabe, published a blog that addresses the potential role of biomass in the CPP. In addition, the agency held a workshop on the role of biomass in the CPP in April 2016 (Biomass magazine,2017).



Independent of the CPP, most states have renewable portfolio standards or goals in place (Figure 4.6). These standards require that utility companies generate a certain amount of energy from renewable resources by a certain date. For example, a certain percentage of the utility’s electric power sales must be generated from renewable energy sources. Biomass is however only one from of renewable energy eligible to meet these targets – in addition to wind, solar, hydropower,etc. 


图4.6 -美国州有可再生能源组合标准

Figure 4.6 - U.S. states with renewable portfolio standards (mandatory) or goals (voluntary) – by January 2012 (EIA, 2012).





木屑颗粒有可能成为生产先进生物燃料的生物炼油厂的主要原料。然而,在这一点上,新兴行业还没有带动木屑颗粒生产的大量扩张。先进生物燃料行业发展的关键基础是2007年“能源独立与安全法”(EISA),修订了2005年EPACT建立的可再生能源燃料标准(RFS)。到2022年,美国将生产360亿加仑生物燃料。其中,210亿加仑是先进的生物燃料(源自玉米淀粉以外的原料)。在210亿加仑中,有160亿加仑来自纤维素乙醇。其余50亿加仑将来自生物柴油和其他先进的生物燃料。美国环保署(EPA)正在修改其目前的RFS,以反映EISA的变化。下图列出了EISA规定的生物燃料生产新目标。详见IEA生物能源任务,美国国家报告(Hess et al.2015)。

Wood pellets have the potential to become a key input feedstock to biorefineries producing advanced biofuels. At this point however, the nascent industry has not yet triggered a vast expansion of wood pellet production. The key underlying policy to the growth of the advanced biofuels industry is the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA), amending the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) as established by EPACT in 2005. By 2022, the U.S. shall produce 36 billion gallons of biofuels. Of that, 21 billion gallons shall be advanced biofuels (derived from feedstock other than corn starch). Of the 21 billion gallons, 16 billion shall come from cellulosic ethanol. The remaining 5 billion gallons shall come from biomass-based diesel and other advanced biofuels. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is revising its current RFS to reflect the changes in the EISA. The figure below lists the new targets for biofuels production as prescribed by EISA. For details see IEA Bioenergy Task 40 U.S. Country Report (Hess et al. 2015).



Figure 4.7 - Renewable Fuel Standard Volumes by Year (US Department of Energy, 2015)




Production capacity, production and feedstock




随着Highland Pellets颗粒厂在派恩布拉夫和阿拉斯加的最新投产,到2016年底,美国颗粒行业已达到13.7 Mt的生产能力(表4-5)。

With the latest commissioning of the Highland Pellets plant in Pine Bluff, AR, at the end of 2016 17 , the U.S. pellet industry had reached an operational production capacity of 13.7 Mt (Table 4-5).


大多数厂生产木屑颗粒,其运行能力为13.2 Mt。

The majority of the plants produce wood pellets, representing 13.2 Mt of the operational capacity.


自2004年以来,木屑颗粒生产呈现稳步增长,南美地区呈现数量级增长(图4.9)。 在美国南部,到2015年消耗纸浆木材和剩余木片纤维的工厂有119家;与2000年相同(Forest2Market 2015)。 然而,该行业从纸浆和纸张到木屑颗粒生产已经出现内部转变。自2005年以来,在美国南部建成了16个新的木屑颗粒设施。1995-2015年间,美国南部14个纸浆和造纸厂永久封闭(Forest2Market 2015)。

Wood pellet production has seen a steady growth since 2004, with an exponential increase across the U.S. South (Figure 4.9). In the U.S. South, 119 mills consuming pulpwood and residual chip fiber were operating by 2015; the same amount as in 2000 (Forest2Market 2015). However, there had been an internal shift in the sector from pulp and paper to wood pellet production. 16 new wood pellet facilities were built in the U.S. South since 2005. Between 1995-2015, 14 pulp and paper mills permanently closed across the U.S. South (Forest2Market 2015).


图4.8  2008-2016年美国木屑颗粒市场的发展(2016估计)。

Figure 4.8 - Wood pellet market development in USA from 2008 to 2016 (2016*estimated).


图4.9 - 2003-2013年,美国地区颗粒生产能力的增长

Figure 4.9. - Growth in pellet production capacity by U.S. region from 2003 through 2013 (Forisk Consulting in Abt et al., 2014)



Geographic concentration



Pellet mills across the U.S. are located mainly in the key wood producing regions, including the Southeast, Northeast, and Northwest (Figure 4.10).


图4.10- 北美颗粒厂的地理位置

Figure 4.10. - Geographic location of North American Pellet Mills (Source:




Main operations


有15个颗粒厂年生产能力达到300,000短吨以上(272,155吨/年);都位于美国东南部(表4-6)。 主要包括:

There are 15 wood pellet plant operations above 300,000 short tons annual capacity(272,155 t/a); all located within the Southeastern U.S. (Table 4-6). The main operations and market actors include:


Enviva:大多数厂(7个),总容量为3 Mt(2.7 Mt)

Enviva: most plants (seven) with a total capacity of 3 Mt (2.7 Mt)


Drax:其Amite BioEnergy和Morehouse BioEnergy工厂的总产能为996,000短吨(890,000吨)

Drax: a combined capacity of 996,000 tonnes (890,000 t) with its Amite BioEnergy and Morehouse BioEnergy plants


Georgia Biomass: 美国最大的单一工厂,拥有825,000短吨(740,000吨)的生产能力,由RWE Innogy拥有和经营

Georgia Biomass: largest single plant in the U.S. with 825,000 tonnes (740,000 t) capacity, owned and operated by RWE Innogy


German Pellets以前是一名重要的市场参与者,但是在2016年两家美国子公司申请破产,降低了其整体生产份额

German Pellets used to be a significant market actor, but filed for insolvency of two U.S. subsidiaries in 2016 reducing its overall production share


表4-6 - 美国木屑颗粒厂运营量超过300,000短吨/年(272,155吨/年)(生物质杂志,2016年)。

Table 4-6 - U.S. wood pellet plant operations above 300,000 short tons annual capacity (272,155 t/a) (Biomass-Magazine, 2016, adapted).




Feedstock selection



As shown in Figure 4.11, pellet mills typically use residual chip fiber and pulpwood; the same feedstock as panelboard, OSB or pulp and paper mills.


图4.11 -2005-2016年美国南部颗粒生产实际和公布的原料来源

Figure 4.11 - Actual and announced feedstock source for use in pellet production in the U.S. South for 2005–2016 (Forisk Consulting in Abt et al., 2014).



It is estimated that 2-4 % of the wood market volume in the southeastern United States is wood based pellets as pellets have a much lower market value compared to timber and pulp for paper.



Therefore bioenergy feedstock is most often a byproduct of management for higher value forest Products.





Wood pellet consumption



No official statistics on domestic wood pellet consumption exists.


但是,可以通过下面的公式来推出: C i = P i + I i - E i

However, it can be approximated via the following formula:  C i = P i + I i - E i   ,Where

C i : Consumption in year i年消费量 

P i : Production in year i年产量 (Sources: Lamers et al. 2012, FAOSTAT 2016)

I i : Imports in year i年进口量 (Sources: Statistics-Canada 2016, USDA 2016)

E i : Exports in year i年出口量 (Sources: EUROSTAT 2015, USDA 2016)


表4-7 -基于生产、进出口数据的国内消费估算(吨)。

Table 4-7 - Estimated domestic consumption based on production, import and export statistics (metric tonnes).



Main consumers



The main consumers of U.S. produced wood pellets are export markets, accounting for 63 % in 2015. The remaining share is consumed domestically in residential heating. It is estimated that over 13 million wood heaters are in operational use across the U.S., the minority (roughly 10 %)of which is wood pellet stoves (Figure 4.14). Commercial use is limited and expected at less than 1 % total consumption (Table 4-8).


U.S. biopower and/or -heat facilities are not known to use wood pellets in significant quantities.




Figure 4.14 - U.S. pellet stove sales and inventory (Source: Hearth, Patio, and Barbeque Association; RISI; own calculations).360截图20170804132909893.jpg

表4-8 -木材和木材衍生燃料消费

Table 4-8 - Wood and wood-derived fuel consumption by sector as projected in EIA 2016(PJ).


图4.15 -生物质发电(www.wood2energy。org)。

Figure 4.15 - Biomass power operational (www.wood2energy.org).


图4.16 -生物质热电联产运行(www.wood2energy。org)。

Figure 4.16 - Biomass CHP operational (www.wood2energy.org).



Price trends



Historically, industrial wood pellets sold for $155 to $175 per tonne at Amsterdam, Rotterdam, or Antwerp (ARA) harbors (CIF-price: Cost, Insurance and Freight). U.S. FOB (Free-On-Board) or FAS (Free-Alongside-Ship) export prices have ranged between $140 and $155 per tonne in main distribution harbors along the Southeast (e.g., Savanna, GA, and Mobile, AL).



Residential markets are supplied by bagged pellets, stacked on pallets for bulk distribution. Prices vary, but are typically in the range of $5 (standard) to $7 (premium) per 40 pound bag (18.14 kg), equaling $275 to $385 per tonne (excl. tax) at a final user distribution center, e.g.,Supermarket.


图4.17 -2008-2015年美国木屑颗粒平均价格

Figure 4.17 - Average wood pellet prices in USA from 2008 to 2015.




Table 4-9 - Example heating price comparison (Source: http://www.pelletheat.org/compare-fuel-costs).




Trade and logistic aspects


美国颗粒产量从2008的2Mt上升到2015年约7.4Mt(图4.18)。国内消费量相对稳定在3 Mt左右。加拿大的年度跨境贸易在250,000吨以上,98%出口额运往欧盟,达到总产量的近三分之二(表4-10,表4-11)。

U.S. pellet production grew from just under 2 Mt in 2008 to about 7.4 Mt by 2015 (Figure 4.18).Domestic consumption has remained relatively stable around 3 Mt. Annual cross-border trade with Canada is in the range of 250,000 t and exports, 98 % of which go to the EU, have reached almost two thirds of total production (Table 4-10,Table 4-11).


图4.18 -2008-2015年美国木屑颗粒生产、消费和进出口

Figure 4.18 - U.S. wood pellet production, consumption, imports and exports from 2008-2015 (EUROSTAT, 2015; FAOSTAT, 2016; Lamers et al., 2012;Statistics Canada, 2016; USDA, 2016)



图4.19 -2008-2015年美国出口和进口的演变。

Figure 4.19 - Evolution of export and import in the USA from 2008 to 2015.



Traditionally, the U.S. wood pellet industry was medium- to small-scale, supplying residential heating market segments via truck. The largest increase in pelleting capacity was seen across the Southeast, where large-scale production destined for EU export markets has emerged since 2007/2008. Logistics in this region are dependent on large-scale bulk transport including barge and rail transport of wood pellets to transloading stations at harbors and oversea transport to Europe.


表4-10--进口(USDA, 2016)

Table 4-10 - Imports in metric tonnes (USDA, 2016)



表4-11--出口(USDA, 2016)

Table 4-11 - Exports in metric tonnes (USDA, 2016).



图4.20 -2015年从美国出口和进口的颗粒

Figure 4.20 - Pellet exports and imports from USA in 2015.




Pellet quality standard



63 % of the total 2015 U.S. production was exported, with 99 % of this volume destined for the European union (EU) market. Hence, EU specific quality standards predominantly for industrial applications apply to this production share. The remaining production share is largely targeted towards the domestic market and within this market largely the residential heating segment.



The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for new residential wood heaters including pellet stoves, issued by the EPA in 2015, requires any new non-commercial wood-burning appliance to utilize fuel that has been graded through an EPA-authorized standards program list. Currently the Pellet Fuels Institute (PFI) Standards Program is listed as the only U.S.-based quality scheme. For appliances such as pellet stoves, manufacturers will be required to state that their products have been tested with fuel from a particular grading program. Manufacturers also must state such claims in the owner’s manuals and in their product warranties or they will be voided.



The PFI Label is provided in a Standard and Premium class. Table 4-12 compares the key criteria to ENplus criteria. Naturally, U.S. producers could also apply the 2014 ISO standard 17225-2. The ISO and ENplus standard are mainly aligned, with a few stricter requirements in the ENplus. At this point, ten U.S. wood pellet producers are currently certified under the ENplus scheme.


表4-12 PFI和ENplus颗粒质量参数对比

Table 4-12 - Quality parameters for PFI and ENplus pellets




Proposed plants


目前在美国拟建的颗粒厂有约3.5 Mt的额外容量。表4-13--已在美国运行的颗粒厂。

About 3.5 Mt of additional capacity are currently proposed across the U.S. Pellet plants which are already in operation in the U.S. are listed in Table 4-13.



Table 4-13 - Operational U.S. wood pellet plant list by capacity (Biomass-Magazine 2016)


 来源:IEA Bioenergy