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IEA Bioenergy:亚洲木屑颗粒市场 Wood pellet industry and market in Asia

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2017-07-14  来源:全球先进生物能源资讯  浏览次数:342
 

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中国China

与日本和韩国不同,其他亚洲国家主要是木屑颗粒出口国,例如中国、泰国、越南、印度尼西亚和马来西亚的。中国可再生能源行业近年来呈现快速增长态势。 2013年,中国国家能源局发布了“关于建立可再生能源投资组合标准的指导意见”,要求2020 年和2030 年可再生能源分别占一次能源消费比重15%和20%的目标。RPS是一项规定,要求增加可再生能源的使用,如风能、太阳能、生物质能和地热能源的生产。规定电力供应企业利用一定比例的可再生能源,但是由于有些政策仍未十分完善,例如缺乏监管和处罚机制不足等问题。

Unlike Japan and South Korea, other Asian countries are mainly wood pellet exporters such as China, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and Malaysia. China’s renewable energy sector is growing fast in recent years. In 2013, the Chinese National Energy Administration released “Guiding Opinions on Establishing Renewable Energy Portfolio Standards (RPS)” which set renewable energy consumption targets for China to achieve 15 % and 20 % of renewable energy in the total primary energy consumption by 2020 and 2030 respectively. The RPS is a regulation that requires the increased production of energy from renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal. It stipulates electricity supply companies to produce a specified fraction from renewable energy sources, however many aspects of the policy are left undeveloped such as lacking of monitoring and compliance requirements and insufficient monitoring for trading and insufficient penalty for not demonstrating compliance with the mechanism (Xin-gang et al., 2014).

 

 

图5.1 - 2015年中国颗粒进出口情况。

Figure 5.1 - Pellet exports and imports from China in 2015.

 

中国生物质能源种类繁多,包括作物秸秆、树枝、动物粪便、能源作物、工业有机废水、城市污水和垃圾。木材(森林)废弃的供应量约为900 Mt,其中300Mt可用作能源消耗。能源作物如高粱,麻风树主要占地约20亿公顷,以满足年产量约50 Mt的生物液体燃料原料需求(中国国家能源局2012年数据)。中国国内对木屑颗粒的需求正在不断增长,主要是在东部和广东省,当地政府禁止燃煤锅炉,而且颗粒成本低于全国其他地区。

Biomass energy resources in China are diverse, including crop stalks, tree branches, animal manure, energy crops, industrial organic waste water, municipal sewage and garbage. Availability from wood (forest) wastes is about 900 Mt in which 300 Mt can be used as energy use. Energy crops such as sorghum, jatropha curcas dominate about 2,000 million hectares, to meet the annual output of about 50 Mt of bio-liquid fuel raw materials demand (Chinese national bureau of energy, 2012). China's domestic demand for wood pellets is growing, largely in the east and in Guangdong province, where the local government has prohibited coal-fired boilers and the cost of pellets is lower than elsewhere in the country (Murray, 2015).

 

除了过去几年国内生物质产量不断增长,中国也是出口国。2014年,中国向韩国出口287kt木屑颗粒。

In addition to biomass production for the domestic market which has grown since the last few years, China is also an exporter. In 2014, China exported 287 kt of wood pellets to South Korea.

 

2015年,出口大幅下滑,因为中国生产商不得不面对越南生产商的木屑颗粒低价竞争;然而,它获得日益增长的日本生物质能市场份额(Argus Media, 2016)。 由于木材资源供应紧张,生产成本上涨导致中国木屑颗粒价格上涨(105欧元/吨),竞争力下降,中国木屑颗粒贸易商谈判空间有限(Argus Media, 2016)。

In 2015, the export fell sharply as Chinese producers had to compete with Vietnamese producers for cheaper wood pellet prices; however it gained a growing Japanese biomass market which supports growth in the coming years (Argus Media, 2016). High production costs as results of tight wood resources supply renders Chinese wood pellets less competitive as price increases (€105/t), Chinese wood pellets trader have limited room for negotiation (Argus Media, 2016).

 


 

日本Japan

 

监管框架、市场驱动力和障碍

Regulatory framework, market drivers and barriers

 

在日本,为促进可再生能源生产以及利用生物质发电供热而制定了一些政策和激励措施。2009年“促进生物质能利用基本法”旨在全面规划推进生物质能利用政策或2010年“促进生物质能利用国家计划”,旨在制定生物质利用技术发展的基本方针。

In Japan, there are a number of policies and incentives established to promote the renewable energy production as well as biomass utilization for heat and power generation. The 2009 Basic Act for the Promotion of Biomass Utilization aimed to establish a comprehensive and planned promotion of biomass utilization policy or the 2010 National Plan for the Promotion of Biomass Utilization aimed to set basic policies on the development of technologies for biomass utilization (Honda et al., 2015).

 

2011年日本地震和福岛核电厂事故以后,最重要的政策是从2012年7月开始执行的可再生能源的上网电价计划(FIT)。根据这一计划,电力公司有义务购买可再生能源发电份额,如固定期限的固定价格合约下的太阳能光伏和生物质(METI,2012)。 自那以后,日本的颗粒消耗量迅速增长。日本在2011年福岛灾难发生后,其电力组合变得多样化。日本经济产业省(METI)每年都对FIT的采购价格进行了重新审查,根据这一计划,发电机的电量为0.15-0.28欧元/千瓦时,取决于他们使用的木材来源。

The most important policy after the 2011 Japan Earthquake and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident is Feed-in Tariff (FIT) Scheme for Renewable Energy which has been implemented since July 2012. Under this scheme, electric utilities are obliged to purchase electricity generated from renewable energy sources such as solar PV and biomass on a fixed-period contract at a fixed price (METI, 2012). Pellet consumption in Japan has grown rapidly since then. Japan has diversified its power mix after the Fukushima disaster in 2011. Purchase price of FIT has been reexamined every year by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and under this scheme, generators receive 0.15-0.28 €/kWh depending on the wood source they use.

 

对FIT方案进行定期更改和修改,对于发电机来说,要理解并遵从方案要求是非常复杂和具有挑战性的。

There are regular changes and amendments of FIT scheme which make it sophisticated and challenging for generators to understand and to demonstrate compliance with the scheme requirements.

 

生产能力、生产和原料

Production capacity, production and feedstock

 

(FAOSTAT,2016年)的数据显示,过去5年来,国内生产的木屑颗粒约90 kt。 然而,木屑颗粒进口量增加表明日本木屑颗粒的消耗量较大。2015年,从加拿大、中国和越南的进口量达到230 kt(Argus Media, 2016)。

Data from (FAOSTAT, 2016) indicated that domestic production of wood pellets in the last 5 years was about 90 kt. However, a higher quantity of wood pellets import has indicated a larger consumption of wood pellets in Japan. Import from Canada, China and Vietnam has reached 230 kt in 2015 (Argus Media, 2016).

 

日本制浆造纸企业王子制纸株式会社(Oji Green Resources)和三菱造纸厂(Mitsubishi Paper Mills)共同组建了一个合资企业,将在日本青森县兴建一座75MW生物质发电厂,预计在2019投产。

Japanese pulp and paper firms Oji Green Resources, a subsidiary of Oji Holdings, and Mitsubishi Paper Mills have formed a joint venture to build a 75 MW biomass power plant supposed to be operational in 2019 at Mitsubishi Paper’s Hachinohe mill, in Japan’s Aomori prefecture.

 

图5.2 - 日本木屑颗粒进出口情况。

Figure 5.2 - Wood pellet import and export in Japan. (Bassett and Young, 2015;

 

消费

Consumption

 

考虑到国内生产和进出口,2015年木屑颗粒消费量约320 kt(FAOSTAT,2016;Argus Media,2016)。

Taking into account the domestic production, import and export, the consumption of wood pellets is about 320 kt in 2015 (FAOSTAT, 2016; Argus Media, 2016).

 

价格趋势

Price trends

 

日本往往进口高品质颗粒,出口质量较差的木屑颗粒(FAOSTAT,2016)。木屑颗粒的进口价格从2012年的207欧元/吨下降到2015年的178欧元/吨。相比之下,2012 - 2014年的出口价格约为110欧元/吨,2015年的出口价格增加到129欧元/吨。

Japan tends to import high quality and export lower quality of wood pellets (FAOSTAT, 2016). The import price of wood pellets has decreased from 207 €/t in 2012 to 178 €/t in 2015. In contrast, the export value was about 110 €/t in 2012-2014 and increased to 129 €/t in 2015.

 

 

颗粒质量标准Pellet quality standard

 

一般来说,在日本有各种用于发电的木材。颗粒质量越高,购买价格越高。未使用的木材代表最高的质量和价格(0.23-0.29€/ kWh)。其他木材如锯木厂废弃物、进口木材以及木材废物等也用于生物质发电厂。

In general, there is a variety of wood to be used for power generation in Japan. The higher the quality of pellet is, the higher the purchase price. Unused wood represents the highest quality and price (0.23-0.29 €/kWh) (Shen, 2015). Other woods such as sawmill residues, import wood, wood wastes, etc. are also used in biomass generation plants.

 

 

The Basic Act for the Promotion of Biomass Utilization has a number of requirements for wood pellets and general biomass use including:

“促进生物质能利用基本法”对木屑颗粒和一般生物质利用有许多要求,包括:

 

  • 全面、统一和有效利用生物质

    Comprehensive, Uniform and Effective Utilization of Biomass

     

  • 减缓全球变暖

    Mitigation of Global Warming

     

  • 发展循环型社会 

    Development of Recycling-based Society

     

  • 促进工业发展和国际竞争力

    Promotion of industrial Development and International Competitiveness

     

  • 振兴农村

    Revitalization of Rural Areas

     

  • 充分利用不同类型的生物质

    Full Utilization of Different Types of Biomass

     

  • 能源多元化

    Diversification of Energy Sources

     

  • 促进以社区为基础的自愿行动

    Promotion of Community-based Voluntary Actions

     

  • 提高生物质社会意识

    Raising of Social Awareness for Biomass

     

  • 稳定粮食供应与生物质利用的一致性

    Consistency between Stable Food Supplies and Biomass Utilization

     

  • 环境保护意识

    Considerations for Environment Preservation

 

日本禁止非法采伐木屑。日本政府推动国际上打击非法采伐的工作,并采取“非法采伐木材不得使用”的原则执行政府采购政策(MAFF Japan, 2012)。2010年,GOJ还与印度尼西亚政府合作开发了适用于木材出口国的木材产品跟踪系统。 销往日本的木屑颗粒必须经过森林管理(FM)认证(Argus Media,2016)。

Illegal logging for wood pellets is prohibited in Japan. The Japanese government promotes international efforts to combat illegal logging and implements a governmental procurement policy under the principle that “illegally harvested timber should not be used” (MAFF Japan, 2012). In 2010, the GOJ also developed a tracking system for wood products in cooperation with the Indonesian Government which is applicable to wood exporting countries. Wood pellets sold into Japan must be Forest Management (FM) certified (Argus Media, 2016).

 

拟建的颗粒厂

Proposed pellet plants

 

自2011年开始实施FIT计划以来,已经考虑了超过100个木质生物质发电厂,另有84个项目得到批准。政府的目标是到2030年之前迅速增加可再生能源使用,使太阳能占15%左右,其他(生物质能和水电)占10%左右。另外,政府还要建立一个生物质能区,通过该地区各利益相关者的合作,建立和运行综合生物质能利用系统。

Since the FIT scheme started in 2011, over 100 wood bio-mass electric power generation plants are under consideration and another 84 projects have been approved (Shen, 2015). The government aims to rapidly increase renewables by 2030 so that solar makes up about 15 % and others (biomass and hydro) make up about 10 % (Bassett and Young, 2015). In addition, government aims to establish a Biomass Town area where a comprehensive biomass utilization system is established and operated through the cooperation of various stakeholders in the area.

 

自2005年以来,日本已经开发了约300个生物质城镇计划。日本农林水产省(MAFF)编制了指南,旨在促进东亚国家生物质城镇概念发展。

Approximately 300 Biomass Town Plans have been developed to date since 2005 in Japan. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) has compiled the guidebook aimed to promote the Biomass Town Concept throughout the East Asian countries and approximately 300 Biomass Town Plants have been developed to date since 2005 in Japan (MAFF Japan, 2015).

 

未来的预测

Future projections

 

FIT计划预计将继续推动日本的生物质利用。根据(Strauss, 2016),在一个合理的情况下,到2020年中期日本可能需求每年超过15 Mt的木屑颗粒。

The FIT scheme is predicted to continue driving biomass use in Japan. According to (Strauss, 2016), under one plausible scenario, Japan could be demanding well in excess of 15 Mt/a of wood pellets by the mid-2020s.

 

图5.3 -日本的生物质城镇

Figure 5.3 - Biomass Towns in Japan.

 

图5.4 - 日本工业木屑颗粒市场预测。

Figure 5.4 - Japanese market forecast for industrial wood pellets.

 

 

  

 

马来西亚、印度尼西亚Malaysia, Indonesia

与越南相比,马来西亚、印度尼西亚和泰国三个国家都是小型的木屑颗粒的生产和出口国(Argus Media,2016; Murray,2015)。印度尼西亚和马来西亚于2014年和2015年分别向韩国出口了约150kt和60 kt的木屑颗粒。这两个国家出口棕榈仁壳(PKS)到日本,但供应市场仍然相当小(Bioenergy International, 2015)。受到供应/质量、寿命和数量权衡的影响,买家价格仍然很高。

Compared to Vietnam, the three countries Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand are small producers and exporters of wood pellets (Argus Media, 2016; Murray, 2015). Indonesia and Malaysia have exported about 150 and 60 kt of wood pellets respectively to South Korea in 2014 and 2015. Palm kernel shells (PKS) are exported from these two to Japan but the supply markets are still rather small (Bioenergy International, 2015). Buyer prices are still high and influenced by the cost of supply/quality, longevity, and quantity trade-off.

 

 

   

 

韩国South Korea

 

Regulatory framework, market drivers and barriers

监管框架、市场驱动力和障碍

 

 

自2012年成立以来,可再生能源投资组合标准(RPS)在韩国的木屑颗粒市场中起着重要的作用。要求电力公司必须在未来十年将其可再生能源发电比例从2%提高到10%。

The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) plays an important role in the wood pellet market in South Korea since the establishment in 2012. It requires that power utilities must deliver 2 % of their generated energy from renewables and progressively to 10 % in the coming decade (2022).

 

与风能、太阳能或水力发电等其他可再生能源相比,预计生物质能够提供大部分清洁能源的电力,估计为50-60%。在实施RPS后,韩国的木屑颗粒需求开始上升,其他国家的进口数量增多。

Compared to other renewables such as wind, solar, or hydropower, biomass is expected to deliver the bulk of the clean energy capacity estimated at 50-60 %. Wood pellet demand in South Korea began to rise after the implementation of RPS with more import quantity from other countries.

 

RPS有优势,包括通过竞争技术的渗透和可再生能源供应义务的成就来降低成本。 但是,投资者可能承担管理成本过高或成本低的电力供应的风险。

There are advantages with the RPS including cost minimization by penetration of competitive technologies and accomplishments of renewable supply obligation. However, investors might bear the risk of excessive management costs or low-cost oriented power supply.

 

生产能力、生产和原料

Production capacity, production and feedstock

 

根据FAOSTAT 2016的估计,在过去五年中,韩国平均每年生产的木屑颗粒仅在约15 kt,不能满足国内需求。森林产品主要用于流域保护和净水,防止水土流失和森林景观(Korean Forest Service, 2015)。

According to FAOSTAT 2016 estimate, an average annual production of wood pellets in South Korea is only about 15 kt in the last five years which does not meet the domestic demand. Forest products are mainly for watershed conservation and water purification, soil erosion prevention, forest recreation and forest landscape (Korean Forest Service, 2015).

 

消费

Consumption

 

木屑颗粒的消耗量远高于韩国国内生产的木屑颗粒。进口木屑颗粒从2012年的122 kt增加到2014年的1,850 kt,2015年略减至1471 kt(FAOSTAT,2016)。

Consumption of wood pellets is much higher than the domestic production of wood pellets in South Korea. Imported wood pellets increased from 122 kt in 2012 up to 1,850 kt in 2014 and slightly decreased to 1,471 kt in 2015 (FAOSTAT, 2016).

 

 

价格趋势

Price trends

 

进口价格在109-135欧元/吨之间,但2015年为110欧元/吨(FAOSTAT,2016年)。

Imported price in bulk ranges from 109-135 €/t but 2015 it stood at 110€/t (FAOSTAT, 2016).

 

贸易和物流方面

Trade and logistic aspects

 

韩国政府已经制定了到2020年前进口5 Mt木屑颗粒的目标,以满足75%的颗粒需求(Roos and Brackley, 2012)。包括颗粒在内的木制品主要来自越南(70%)和其他国家,如马来西亚和加拿大(FAOSTAT,2016)。其他供应商来自美国、加拿大、俄罗斯、印度尼西亚和澳大利亚。

The South Korean government has set a target to import 5 Mt of wood pellets by 2020 to meet 75 % of pellets requirement (Roos and Brackley, 2012). Wood products including pellets are imported mainly from Vietnam (70 %) and other countries such as Malaysia and Canada (FAOSTAT, 2016). Other suppliers are from USA, Canada, Russia, Indonesia and Australia.

 

颗粒质量标准

Pellet quality standard

 

与大多数其他国家不同,韩国不接受监管链认证作为纤维来源的证据(Murray,2015)。韩国环境部要求木屑颗粒来源合法,还需要用纯木纤维制成,没有混合的任何非木质材料(Murray,2015)。环境部还出台了“关于促进资源储存和循环利用的法案”。根据该法案,SRF的进口商或制造商应进行质量检测后向环境部部长或地方政府主管汇报,如果产品不符合标准,该部可以强制执行禁止进口和生产或按要求改进。据Murray说,稻壳是主要的问题之一,因为包含木材以外的任何材料的颗粒被认为是生物质固体垃圾燃料。允许进口由废弃物制成的固体垃圾燃料(SRF),如棕榈壳,但将加强对这些产品的进口、生产和使用的质量检测,同时建立废弃物能源的公共和私营组织。

Unlike most other countries, South Korea does not accept chain-of—custody certification as evidence of fiber source (Murray, 2015). South Korea Ministry of Environment requires that wood pellets need to be legally sourced and they also need to be made from pure wood fiber, and they don’t have any non-woody material mixed in (Murray, 2015). The Ministry of Environment (MOE) also issued the Act on the Promotion of Saving and Recycling of Resources which has been revised. Under the act, an importer or manufacturer of SRF should report to the Minister of Environment or the head of local government after going through the quality test based on quality standard and in case where the product does not meet the standard, the ministry may impose a ban on import and production of SRF or request improvement. According to Murray, rice husks are one of the main concerns because pellets containing any material other than wood are considered biomass solid refuse fuel. Imports of Solid Refuse Fuel (SRF) made from wastes such as palm shell will be permitted but quality test for the import, production and use of these products will be reinforced while public and private organizations for waste-to-energy will be established.

 

韩国允许进口生物质燃料--棕榈壳。预计可以扩大可再生能源的分配,以取代化石燃料。而且,这将有助于解决发电公司实现可再生能源投资组合标准(Ministry of Environment of Korea, 2014)的担忧。

The import of palm shell, a source of biomass fuel, to Korea will be allowed. It is expected to expand distribution of renewable energy to replace fossil fuel. And, this will help resolve concerns of power generation companies to fulfill Renewable energy Portfolio Standard (Ministry of Environment of Korea, 2014).

 

Figure 5.5 - Pellet exports and imports from Korea in 2015.

图5.5 - 2015年韩国的出口和进口。

 

未来的预测

Future projections

 

据美国能源信息署2016年报道,韩国对木屑颗粒的需求量在不断增加,2012年推出可再生能源投资组合标准增加了对生物质和木屑颗粒使用的兴趣。主要进口来自加拿大、东南亚和美国。

According to (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2016), demand for wood pellets also is increasing in South Korea and the introduction of a renewable portfolio standard in 2012 increased interest in the use of biomass and wood pellets for energy generation. Imports to the two countries come predominantly from Canada, Southeast Asia and the U.S.

 

据Bloomberg New Energy Finance报道,2014年韩国对木屑颗粒的需求估计为220万吨,相当于英国的40%左右。

According to Bloomberg New Energy Finance, South Korea's demand for wood pellets in 2014 was estimated at 2.2 million short tonnes, equal to approximately 40 % of the U.K.’s total.

 

 

   

 

越南Vietnam

越南有大型家具制造业生产商。因此,它可以利用丰富的木材废料,从而在亚洲地区实现最低的生产成本。与泰国、印度尼西亚和马来西亚的出口竞争相比,越南的大型木屑颗粒工厂也有助于提高规模经济(Argus Media, 2016)。越南是主要出口国,占70%韩国市场份额,也为日韩木屑市场(Murray,2016年)提供了约90欧元/吨有竞争力的木屑颗粒价格。越南生产商对韩国的运输成本(0.9欧元/吨)也较低。

Vietnam has large furniture manufacturing industry producers. Therefore it benefits from the plentiful wood waste thus enabling the lowest production costs in the Asian region. Large wood pellet factories in Vietnam have also helped to improve its economies of scale compared with competing exports from Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia (Argus Media, 2016). Vietnam is the main exporter dominating 70 % of South Korean market, it also offers a competitive wood pellet price at about 90 €/t to Japanese and South Korean markets (Murray, 2016). Vietnamese producers also low shipping cost (0.9 €/t) to South Korea.

 

韩国可能会收紧木屑颗粒的可持续发展标准,以及提前宣布竞价的交易商,与韩国进行贸易会变得没有以前容易。日本生物质可持续性标准的实施也会出现类似的情况,阻碍越南贸易商进入日本市场。

South Korea will likely tighten the sustainability criteria for wood pellets as well as traders to announce early bidding, trade to South Korea might not be easily accessed as in the past. Similar situation arise in Japan with biomass sustainability criteria implementation, which impede Vietnamese traders to enter the Japanese market.

 

图5.6 - 2015年越南进出口颗粒情况

Figure 5.6 - Pellet exports and imports from Vietnam in 2015

 

 来源:IEA Bioenergy

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