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IEA Bioenergy : 瑞士生物质能市场 Bioenergy in Switzerland

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2018-01-28  来源:全球先进生物能源资讯  浏览次数:332
 

2016年瑞士终端能源消费为854,300 TJ,其中78%来自不可再生能源,22%来自可再生能源(图1)。在可再生能源中,电力占的比重最高(62%),大部分是水电(57%)(图2)。 其余的5%来自其他可再生能源,包括废物能源(40%),太阳能(42%),生物质能(沼气、固体生物质,15%)和风能(3%)(图2)。

Switzerland’s final energy consumption in 2016 amounted to 854,300 TJ of which 78% came from non-renewable resources and 22% from renewables (Fig. 1). Within the renewables, electricity production has the highest share (62%) which is mostly hydropower (57%) (Fig. 2). The remaining 5% comes from so-called new renewables which include waste-to-energy (40%), solar (42%), biomass (biogas as well as solid biomass; 15%) and wind (3%) (Fig. 2).

图1

图2

由于“能源战略2050”(ES 2050)的出台,未来几年可再生能源份额将会增加。 这一战略是2011年,瑞士联邦委员会和议会在日本福岛核电站泄露事故发生后,决定淘汰核能。现役的五座核电站在安全期限内还可将继续使用,但不再新建新的核电站,逐步退出核能。“能源战略2050”旨在提高能源效率,大力发展可再生能源。在可再生能源方面,将采取以下措施:

The situation will change in the years to come with a higher share of renewables due to the “energy strategy 2050 (ES 2050)”. This strategy is the result of the Federal councils and Parliaments decision in 2011, following the Fukushima reactor disaster, to phase out nuclear energy production. The existing five nuclear power plants are to be shut down at the end of their technically safe operating life and will not be replaced. The first set of measures in the ES 2050 aims at increasing energy efficiency and promoting the development of renewable energies. In terms of renewable energies the following measures are to be implemented:

 

•入网补贴制度:太阳能、风能、地热和生物质能发电的实际生产成本高于上网电价。自2009年以来,此类设备的运营商已能够申请入网补贴。该补贴来源于电网附加费。

Feed-in remuneration system: Actual production costs of electricity from solar, wind energy, geothermal and biomass energy are higher than the price at which this electricity can be marketed. Operators of such installations have been able to apply for feed-in remuneration since 2009. This remuneration is financed by the network surcharge.

 

•投资补贴:小于30千瓦的小型光伏发电设备经营者,可以申请一次性补贴安装投资费用,该一次性投资补贴上限为投资成本30%。随着“能源战略2050”的实施,大型光伏发电设备也可以申请补贴。此外,大型新建超过10兆瓦的水电站,以及大型水电站的更新或扩建也将获得投资补贴。投资补贴(一次性补贴)时限至2030年止。

Investment subsidies: Operators of small photovoltaic installations of less than 30 kilowatts, can apply for a one-off subsidy towards the investment costs of the installation. This one-off investment grant covers a maximum of 30% of the investment costs of a comparable installation. With the ES 2050 larger photovoltaic installations may also benefit from this grants. In addition, large, new hydroelectric power plants of more than 10 megawatts, as well as large-scale renewals or extensions of hydroelectric power plants, are also to receive investment subsidies. The financing will come from the network surcharge payed by electricity consumers. Investment contributions (including one-off investment grants) will be available until 2030 at the latest.

 

•要求现有的大型水电站的市场销售价格必须低于生产成本。

Existing large-scale hydroelectric power plants may claim a market premium for electricity that has to be sold for less than the cost of production.

•能源研究:议会批准建立八个国家研究中心,以加强国家研究合作,加快创新技术的上市时间。其中一个研究中心致力于生物能源研究。此外,增加财政资源用于试点、示范项目以及竞争性项目推广。

Energy research: The parliament approved the creation of eight national competence centres for an improved national research collaboration and for accelerating the time to market of innovative technologies. One of these competence centres is dedicated to bioenergy. Furthermore, increased financial resources are available for pilot and demonstration projects as well as for competitive project promotion.

就生物燃料而言,联邦委员会明确指出,用行动加强生物燃料的推广。这也是基于两个战略:瑞士生物质能战略(2009)和生物质能源利用战略(2010)。根据这两个战略,只有从废物和残余物中提取的生物质才是没有问题的。对符合最低生态和社会要求(适用于2020年)的生物燃料(包括生物乙醇、生物柴油和沼气)免征石油税。

In terms of biofuels the Federal Council clearly states that strengthening the promotion of biogenic fuels is not yet an objective. This is also based on two strategies (1) the Swiss biomass strategy (2009) and the strategy for the energy-related use of biomass (2010) which state that the use of biomass should cause no conflicts with foodstuffs and fodder. According to the strategies only extraction from waste and residual materials is unproblematic. There is an exemption from the oil tax for biogenic fuels (including bioethanol, biodiesel and biogas) in place, as long as they meet the minimum ecological and social requirements (applicable until 2020).

 

关于家庭的热量生产,主要任务是用利用可再生生物质(木屑颗粒、木片、生物质热网)替代化石燃料。就生物质发电而言,固体生物质(木材)以及工业和农业应用中的沼气的潜力很大。

With regard to heat production for households there is a political mandate to replace fossil-based combustibles with renewables which could be biomass based (wood pellets, wood chips, thermal network on biomass), With regard to electricity production from biomass there is a high potential foreseen for solid biomass (wood), and for biogas in industrial as well as agricultural applications.

 

最近发表的一项研究表明,瑞士可持续生物质潜力达97 PJ/a,但是目前只使用了48PJ/。未使用的潜力主要来自林业木材和肥料(WSL,2017)。

A recently published study has shown that the Swiss sustainable biomass potential amounts to 97 PJ/a of which only 48 PJ/a are used so far. Unused potential comes mainly from forestry wood and manure (WSL, 2017). 


来源: IEA Bioenergy

 

 

 

 

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