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立陶宛:新时代生物质交易系统-生物质是一种商品

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2019-04-22  来源:全球先进生物能源资讯  浏览次数:453

在立陶宛,供暖季是半年。因此,热能是该国最常见的能源消耗形式也就不足为奇了。区域供热系统(集中式网络为所有客户提供约50%的热量)产生超过9TWh的热能。根据2017年的数据,集中式网络中69%的热量是使用生物质生产的。到2020年,该国的战略目标仍是生物质能集中供热达到80%。

In Lithuania, the heating season is half a year. So, it is not surprising that heat energy is the most common form of energy consumption in the country. The district heating system (the centralized network provides heat for about 50 per cent of all customers) generates more than nine terawatt hours of heat energy. According to 2017 data, 69 per cent of heat in the centralized network is produced using biomass. The country’s political goal remains to reach 80 per cent by 2020.

生物质是立陶宛的战略能源。因此,为了建立透明和公平的市场价格,政客们转向了已经在市场上运营的电力和天然气交易平台。立陶宛电力市场运营商Baltpool不得不创建一个交易平台,成为生物质交易所运营商。

Biomass is a strategic energy resource in Lithuania. Therefore, it is natural that, in order to establish a transparent and fair market price, politicians have turned to electricity and natural gas trading platforms that are already operating on the market. Lithuanian electricity market operator Baltpool was obliged to create a trading platform and become a biomass exchange operator.

 

生物质交易所

通过创建新的交易模型克服的主要挑战包括:

The main challenges that were overcome by creating a new trading model included:

 

•标准化产品。木屑颗粒市场已经标准化多年,但立陶宛使用的主要生物质产品是木片。在产品规格的制定过程中,对大多数锅炉房产品进行了审查,并对四种最常用的产品进行了净化。实践证明,四种产品几乎涵盖了客户的整体需求。目前,生物质交换交易四种木屑、三种木屑颗粒和一种泥炭产品。决定燃料质量的主要参数是水分含量、灰分含量、热值以及氯和硫含量。

• Standardized products. The wood pellets market has been standardized for many years, but the main biomass product used in Lithuania is wood chips. During the development of product specifications, most boiler house products were reviewed, and the four most commonly used ones were purified. As practice has shown, four products cover almost the entire demand of customers. Currently, the biomass exchange trades four wood chip, three wood pellet, and one peat product. The main parameters determining the fuel quality are moisture content, ash content, calorific value, and chlorine and sulphur content.

 

•生物质市场中没有现有的能量传输系统。电力和天然气拥有传输系统运营商,不仅以相同的成本向消费者提供能源资源,而且还补偿未交付的数量(平衡)。Baltpool假设传输系统基于高速公路的道路网络。每个供应商都可以指出其传输系统的成本(生物质物流成本),这些成本包含在销售的生物燃料的最终价格中。

•There is no existing energy transmission system in the biomass market. Electricity and natural gas have a transmission system operator that not only delivers energy resources at the same cost to consumers but also compensates for the undelivered amount (balancing). Baltpool presumes that the transmission system is based on the road network of motorways. Each supplier can indicate the costs of its transmission system (biomass logistics costs), which are included in the final price of the biofuel sold.

 

•生物质的质量检验、交付和验收程序的标准化。运营商详细确定双方的权利和义务,以平衡它。

• Standardization of procedures for quality inspection, delivery, and acceptance of biomass. The operator determines the rights and duties of both parties in detail in order to balance it.

 

•参与者的分类。为了在市场上创造最大的供应和履行义务,有必要为参与者提供不同的类别,因为并非每个人都能履行类似的义务。例如:长期交易只能由最高类别的参与者不受限制; 或者所有参与者都可以在SPOT市场进行交易。

•Classification of participants. In order to create maximum supply and fulfilment of obligations in the market, it was necessary to give participants different categories because not everyone can fulfil similar obligations. For example: long-term transactions can only be made unrestricted by the highest category of participants; or all participants can trade in the SPOT market.

 

交易类型:公开拍卖。这种方式让我们放弃了黑盒子拍卖,创造了透明公平的市场价格。向交易平台提交订单的参与者提供现金或银行担保。目前,有大约500万欧元计价的担保可以弥补潜在的合同解约。应该注意的是,所有合同都已执行,并且不使用抵押品。

Trading type: open auction. This way has allowed us to abandon the black box auction lottery and create a transparent and fair market price. Participants submitting orders to the trading platform provide warranty in cash or a bank guarantee. At present, there are about five million euro-denominated guarantees to compensate for potential contractual discharges. It should be noted that all contracts are executed, and collaterals are not used.

生物质交易的成功在很大程度上是由于小供应商开始参与生物质招标,其活动之前由于买家不愿与小企业建立商业关系而受到限制。由于买家的交易数量大幅增加,Baltpool还推出了允许管理大量交易的模块 - 生物质质量、交货一致性、结算指示、交货时间表以及市场中重要事件的发布。

The success of the biomass exchange was due, in large part, to the fact that small suppliers began to participate in biomass tenders, whose activity was previously restricted as a result of buyers’ unwillingness to have commercial relations with small players. Because the number of transactions for buyers has increased considerably, Baltpool also introduced modules that allow the administration of a large number of transactions— the biomass quality, alignment of the deliveries, settlement instructions, schedule for delivery, and publication of essential events in the market.

 

2018年,立陶宛生物质交易所完成了大约6,000笔交易,在某些情况下,买家每年有50家不同的供应商。由于交易所创造了SPOT市场,超过一半的交易在那里交易。

In 2018, about 6,000 transactions were concluded in the Lithuanian biomass exchange, and in some cases, buyers had 50 different suppliers per year. As the exchange has created the SPOT market, more than half of the deals are being traded there.

 

在过去五年中,消费者的热量价格下降了30%,这主要是由于天然气转向更便宜的生物质,以及透明市场的出现导致生物质价格下降。

The price of heat for consumers dropped by 30 per cent over the last five years, mainly due to a shift from natural gas to cheaper biomass and a fall in the price of biomass resulting from the emergence of a transparent market.

 

立陶宛生物质交易所的运营商

UAB Baltpool是立陶宛生物质交易所的运营商,有权组织生物质和其他产品的贸易。2018年,Baltpool开始处理热能拍卖和木材交易系统。该公司还管理公共利益服务。

UAB Baltpool is an operator of the Lithuanian Biomass Exchange which has the right to organize trade in biomass and other products. In 2018, Baltpool started to handle heat auctions and the timber trading system. The company also administers public interest services.

 

Baltpool开始在国外市场开发。自2017年以来,拉脱维亚提供了类似的服务。Baltpool还与合作伙伴就丹麦和芬兰的类似活动签署了协议。此外,Baltpool积极寻找志同道合的合作伙伴,寻找合作和分享知识的机会。

Baltpool started development in foreign markets. Since 2017, similar services have been provided in Latvia. Baltpool also signed an agreement with partners on similar activities in Denmark and Finland. In addition, Baltpool actively looks for like-minded partners for opportunities to cooperate and share knowledge.

 

 

来源:Baltpool

By Vaidotas Jonutis 

 

 

 

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